原文：Watkins and Graham Collingridge then found that glutamate acts on two different types of ionotropic receptors in the hippocampus, the AMPA receptor and the NMDA receptor. The AMPA receptor mediates normal synaptic transmission and responds to an individual action potential in the presynaptic neuron. The NMDA receptor, on the other hand, responds only to extraordinarily rapid trains of stimuli and is required for long-term potentiation.
原文：It allows calcium ions to flow through its channel if and only if it detects the coincidence of two neural events, one presynaptic and the other postsynaptic. The presynaptic neuron must be active and release glutamate, and the AMPA receptor in the postsynaptic cell must bind glutamate and depolarize the cell. Only then will the NMDA receptors become active and allow calcium to flow into the cell, thereby triggering long-term potentiation.
原文： Instead, they adopted an approach similar to the one Ladislav Tauc and I had first taken in 1962: they developed a neural analog of learning. Rather than basing their neural analog on conventional behavioral paradigms, such as habituation, sensitization, or classical conditioning, they based it on neuronal activity per se.
建议： 这里关键的误译在于"发现...神经类似物"。"发现了"一种..."神经类似物"。令人觉得似乎是在兔子脑中发现某种特殊化学物质一样。然而考察原文 "they developed a neural analog of learning"，再考虑第十章中作者当年是如何把这种"利用神经回路来考察学习过程（对突触）的影响"叫做neural analog of learning"的，不难发现这里的analog of learning是指一种研究手法，旨在将平时所谓的学习类比（analog）到神经回路层面，进而探究学习过程对神经回路的影响。而 "developed"则不是"发现"而是指"发明"、"建立"的意思。因此，我认为这里合适的译法应该是"建立了在神经回路层面对学习过程的类仿"。同理，前文第十章介绍到analog of learning的时候我认为也应作此译，而非"神经类似物"。
原文： But whereas long-term facilitation in Aplysia strengthens synapses heterosynaptically, by means of a modulatory transmitter acting on the homosynaptic pathway, many of long-term potentiation can be initiated merely by means of homosynaptic activity. As we and others found later, however, neuromodulators are usually recruited to switch short-term homosynaptic plasticity into long-term heterosynaptic plasticity.